Copyright Robert Cole 2015 - No copying or distributing -
The Eight DO
SANYODO - The Eight Roads of KOTO




BITCHU CHU-AOE 

        Descendants of the KO-AOE masters and creators of the 
"AOE Style." AOE is famous for leaning  figures in the HAMON and
the BITCHU inner-pattern. CHU-AOE school work shows broader and
clearer YAKIBA from KO-AOE.

Technical: SUGATA - Like early pieces, KOSHIZORI but having 
                    KAMAKURA SUGATA of stronger MONOUCHI. SORI 
                    appears BIZEN-like. Stout KISSAKI is stronger
                    than BIZEN. NIKU and raised SHINOGI mark the
                    SUGATA distinction - the feeling is strong.
             HADA - Pronounced and tight KO-MOKUME that appears 
                    clear. Less JI-NIE than KO-AOE. "SUMI-HADA" 
                    (strings or spots of carbon) is associated. 
                    Unique CHIJI-MEN "Bunched-thread" is found.
                    TOBI-like spots of JI-NIE can be "dappled."
                    May show "Threads of a Spider" (white lines).
            HAMON- The complex YAKIBA of earlier smiths such as
                    TSUGUIYE falls away to wide,clear SUGU with
                    notches. Pattern may be expanded - double or
                    triple CHOJI O-MIDARE TOGARI, however, the
                    famous YAKIBA doubling effect is usually held
                    to the HABUCHI leaving the CHU-AOE mark: 
                    broad and clear.        SUGU SAKA-MIDARE or
                    SAKA-ASHI is seen. Some SAKA-CHOJI forms may
                    be described as though melted, appearing to
                    puddle and lean together. Tall SAKA TOGARI-
                    CHOJI that appears to topple. SUGUHA may have
                    NEZUMI "Rat's feet," triangle and KAKU-ASHI.
                    KINSUJI against ASHI can appear crevice-like,
                    - making the YAKIBA seem fissured. BITCHU is 
                    known for NIOI and KO-NIE of great beauty.
            BOSHI - MATAGI KOKORO "Forked Tree" -split and swept.
                    Short KAERI. Some TAKIOCHI "Waterfall."
           NAKAGO - Mostly long and tapering to KURIJIRI. Some
                    long signatures.

CHU-AOE Schools: Descendent lines from KO-AOE masters
KO-AOE MORITSUGU
  |__________________ ________________ ____________
__|____________    __|______        __|______    __|_____________
TSUGUIYE School    SADATSUGU        NOBUTSUGU    TAMETSUGU School
  |  TSUGUYOSHI    __|____________  __|______________   TAMETSUGU
  |  TSUGUTANE     IYETSUGU School  YOSHITSUGU School   TAMENORI
  |  SANENOBU            IYEHISA      |     IYETSUNA    YORITSUGU
__|______________        NOBUTSUGU    |     NAOTSUGU    MOROTSUGU
TOSHITSUGU School        HISATSUGU    |     KORESHIGE   
     SUKETSUGU                      __|__________________
     SUYETSUGU                      YOSHITSUGU TOSHICHIRO
     SHIGETSUGU    ______________________     UEMONnoJO
     MITSUTSUGU    CHU-AOE SADATSUGU Line     TSUGUNAO
______________________     SUKETSUGU          SUYETSUGU
CHU-AOE MORITSUGU Line     TSUGUZANE          MORITSUGU
    BUN-EI MORITSUGU       SADATSUGU          CHIKATSUGU
    EN-KEI MORITSUGU       SADATSUGU
    EN-BUN MORITSUGU       SADATSUGU

BITCHU CHU-AOE - Patterns become broader and wider from roots
_____________________
IYETSUGU School Root: Medium YAKIBA. Complexity builds in lower
_________
MORITSUGU NIN-AN 1166 - KO-AOE
___|_____
SADATSUGU SHO-GEN 1207 - KO-AOE
___|____
IYETSUGU SHO-KYU 1219 - KO-AOE
   |__________________ __________________
___|___           ____|____          ____|____
IYEHISA           NOBUTSUGU          HISATSUGU(1) KO-AN 1278
KEN-CHO 1249      KO-CHO 1261        ____|____
                                     HISATSUGU(2) GEN-TOKU 1329
        - CHU-AOE -                  ____|____
                                     HISATSUGU(3) EN-BUN 1356

IYEHISA KEN-CHO (f: IYETSUGU): KO-MOKUME. KO-CHOJI KO-MIDARE mix.

NOBUTSUGU KO-CHO (f: IYETSUGU): KO-ITAME with JI-NIE on CHIJI-MEN
        "Bunched" HADA. SUMI-HADA. HOSO-SUGU KO-MIDARE HA and
        SUGUHA with slight NOTARE to KO-CHOJI. ASHI of defined
        NIOI is well-done and bright.
        BOSHI: NOTARE - TOGARI-KAERI or KO-MARU.

HISATSUGU KO-AN (f: IYETSUGU):SUGUHA with ASHI.  

HISATSUGU EN-BUN: MOKUME with MASAME. SUGUHA with ASHI. HISATSUGU
        associated to BUN-PO 1317, GEN-TOKU 1329, EN-BUN 1356 and
        EI-TOKU 1381.

BITCHU CHU-AOE School
________________
TAMETSUGU School             Root: Thin but robust YAKIBA
    |_____________________
____|___              ____|____
TAMENORI HO-JI 1247   TAMETSUGU(2) KAN-GEN 1243
____|____     
YORITSUGU KO-CHO 1261     
____|____                 
MOROTSUGU SHO-O 1288      
_________
MOROTSUGU EN-BUN 1356

TAMETSUGU(2) KAN-GEN (f: TAMETSUGU 1): Mid-KAMAKURA style TACHI.
        JI-HADA is marked by CHIKEI.KO-NIE DEKI CHOJI-MIDARE
        with YO. SUNAGASHI is found. MUNE-YAKI.

YORITSUGU KO-CHO (f: TAMENORI): KO-MOKUME with a veil of JI-NIE.
        HOSO-SUGU KO-MIDARE or shallow NOTARE BA with ASHI.

MOROTSUGU SHO-O (f:YORITSUGU): His name given from the long and
        respected line starting in BUN-JI 1185. SUGU KO-MIDARE. 

MOROTSUGU EN-BUN: MOKUME. SUGU KO-MIDARE with KO-ASHI and NEZUMI.
        SAKA CHOJI-MIDARE HA. 

BITCHU CHU-AOE School          CHU-AOE Reminder: Broad and Clear
_____________________
TSUGUIYE School Root: Wide YAKIBA. Deep, complex inner-pattern
____|_____
TSUGUYOSHI(1) RYAKU-NIN 1238
    |____________________________
____|_____                   ____|____      
TSUGUYOSHI(2) BUN-EI 1264    TSUGUTANE SHO-O 1288
____|_____                   ____|___ 
TSUGUYOSHI(3) TOKU-JI 1306   SANENOBU EI-NIN 1293
____|_____                   ____|___
TSUGUYOSHI(4) RYAKU-O 1338   YUKIZANE (MANJUSHO) BUN-PO 1317

TSUGUTANE SHO-O (f: TSUGUIYE): SUMI-HADA. SUGU KO-MIDARE HA. ASHI.

TSUGUYOSHI(2) BUN-EI:CHU-AOE. Style of his father. TACHI. ITAME 
          has JI-NIE.This line is known for CHIKEI.KO-NIE SUGU 
          KO-MIDARE BA. MIDARE BOSHI. 

TSUGUYOSHI(3) TOKU-JI: SAKON SHOGEN. HOSO-SUGUHA.

TSUGUYOSHI(4) RYAKU-O:SAKON SHOGEN. His HADA renowned for great
        beauty. KANJI-like SUMI-HADA KO-ITAME that is evenly 
        veiled in fine JI-NIE. The steel has luminance. 
        NIOI-DEKI SUGUHA where NEZUMI-ASHI calls KO-ASHI from the
        line. SAKA-CHOJI MIDARE.

BITCHU CHU-AOE School          CHU-AOE Reminder: Broad and Clear

________________________
TOSHITSUGU School Root: Thin YAKIBA. Small patterns with ASHI

    |______________________ 
____|____              ____|_____  
SUKETSUGU KO-CHO 1261  SHIGETSUGU BUN-EI 1264  
____|____              ____|_____
SUYETSUGU SHO-O 1288   MITSUTSUGU SHO-O 1288   
____|____
SUYETSUGU RYAKU-O 1338

SUKETSUGU KO-CHO (f: TOSHITSUGU): Made somewhat narrow TACHI and
        KODACHI. CHIJI-MEN no HADA with  CHIKEI "coming out."
        SUGU or CHU-SUGU SAKA KO-CHOJI MIDARE in NIE with ASHI. 

SUYETSUGU SHO-O (t:SUKETSUGU):KO-ITAME with JI-NIE. CHIJI-MEN 
        HADA. KO-NIE on NIOI-DEKI SUGU CHOJI-MIDARE KO-ASHI.

SHIGETSUGU BUN-EI (f: MORITSUGU, grf: TADATSUGU, t: TOSHITSUGU):
        FUNBARI, KO-KISSAKI TACHI. KOSHIZORI. KO-ITAME with 
        MOKUME having JI-NIE dappled over CHIJI-MEN. SUGUHA of
        NIE is a KO-MIDARE with ASHI or SUGU CHOJI BA. BOSHI is
        KO-MARU. Signed TACHI-MEI on the NAKAGO SHINOGI-JI just
        above the ANA.

BITCHU CHU-AOE - YOSHITSUGU School     CHU-AOE Reminder: Broad and Clear
________________
KO-AOE NOBUTSUGU 
____|_____                                        
YOSHITSUGU(1) KEN-CHO 1249 
    |________________________
____|_____                ___|____ 
YOSHITSUGU(2) KO-AN 1278  IYETSUNA KO-AN 1278
____|___                                      
NAOTSUGU(1) SHO-O 1288 
    |________________________ 
____|___                 ____|____ 
NAOTSUGU(2) KEM-MU 1334  KORESHIGE KEM-MU 1334 
____|___
NAOTSUGU(3) O-EI 1394
_____________________ 
YOSHITSUGU TOSHICHIRO SHO-O 1288            
    |___________________________________ ________________ 
____|_______________                ____|_____       ____|____      
YOSHITSUGU UEMONnoJO KA-REKI 1326   CHIKATSUGU       MORITSUGU          
    |_______________________        GEN-KO 1331      SHO-KEI 1332   
____|_____              ____|___                   _____________
YOSHITSUGU EN-BUN 1356  TSUGUNAO (MARETO)          OAN MORITSUGU
    |______________________    EN-BUN 1356              O-AN 1368
____|_____             ____|____            _________
YOSHITSUGU EI-WA 1375  SUYETSUGU            KAGESHIGE EN-BUN 1356
____|_____                  TEI-JI 1362     ____|____
YOSHITSUGU O-EI 1394                        KAGESHIGE O-EI 1394
____|_____
YOSHITSUGU KA-KICHI 1441

YOSHITSUGU(1) KEN-CHO (f: NOBUTSUGU): Strongly standing MOKUME.
        SUGU KO-MIDARE. ASHI drops sharply.

IYETSUNA KO-AN (f: YOSHITSUGU 1): MOKUME. SUGU KO-MIDARE BA.

NAOTSUGU(1) SHO-O (t: YOSHITSUGU): SAEMONnoJO. MOKUME. SUGUHA.

NAOTSUGU(2) KEM-MU (f: NAOTSUGU 1): Narrow KO-KISSAKI TACHI with
        thick KASANE. TANTO are narrow with little or no SORI.
        KO-MOKUME HADA veiled in JI-NIE. SUMI-HADA. SUGUHA or
        CHU-SUGU of shallow NOTARE, KO-ASHI and YO. SAKA-ASHI
        GUNOME-CHOJI MIDARE. KO-NIE in deep NIOI. Long MEI.
 Tokubetsu Juyo Naotsugu 

YOSHITSUGU UEMONnoJO KA-REKI (f: TOSHICHIRO): MANJUSHO. UEMONnoJO
        became SAEMONnoJO. SUE-KAMAKURA style TACHI and narrow
        MU-SORI TANTO. KO-ITAME of MOKU - pulled and running. 
        JI-NIE veil of dappled, standing UTSURI. SUMI-HADA. 
        NIOI-DEKI SUGUHA with KO-ASHI. SUGU mixed with NOTARE or
        CHOJI-MIDARE patterns having SAKA-ASHI. Defined NIE and 
        NIOI.MIDARE BOSHI - KO-MARU. Often signed long. 

YOSHITSUGU EN-BUN: NAMBOKU smith. Wide blade, elongated KISSAKI.
        SUGUHA of defined NIOI and NEZUMI-ASHI. Patterns of 
        SAKA-CHOJI MIDARE are seen.

BITCHU CHU-AOE - YOSHITSUGU School 
KAGESHIGE EN-BUN: KAGE form: BAN "Evening". AOE. SUGUHA that 
is KO-MIDARE or with KO-ASHI. GUNOME-MIDARE BA.
Another in OEI.
KAGESHIGE
BITCHUnoKUNI KAGESHIGE

SUYETSUGU TEI-JI: MOKUME. CHU-SUGU KO-MIDARE or SUGU NOTARE BA.            YAKIBA shows KO-ASHI. 
CHIKATSUGU GEN-KO (f:BIZEN SABEInoJO CHIKATSUGU, t: YOSHITSUGU):
        From BIZEN to YOSHITSUGU School. Swords in the fashion of
        earlier styles. KO-MOKUME. GUNOME KO-MIDARE HA.

MORITSUGU O-AN: MOKUME. NIOI-DEKI SUGU KO-MIDARE with KO-ASHI and
        NEZUMI. SAKA CHOJI-MIDARE BA.
               

TSUGUNAO EN-BUN (f: YOSHITSUGU): NAMBOKU. Worked for the South.
        Made TACHI, NAGAMAKI and long HIRA-TSUKURI O-TANTO. 
        KO-ITAME that is clear. JI-NIE. SUMI-HADA. NIOI-DEKI 
        SUGUHA with SAKA-ASHI is seen, but mainly SAKA-CHOJI 
        MIDARE or shallow NOTARE, SAKA-CHOJI SAKA-ASHI mix in 
        KO-NIE. BOSHI may be TSUKI-AGE "Thrust" TOGARI.
 Tokubetsu Juyo Tsugunao 


Namboku Yoshitsugu San-Shaku Tachi - Kokuho

Namboku Yoshitsugu Tachi - Kokuho
Nagasa: 101.5cm - San-Shaku San-Sun
Moto-Haba: 4cm


Massive Shrine Gift by Oyama Yoshimasa. Yoshimasa fought for the Southern Cause and died in Seppuku, 1382.

Shinogi-Tsukuri, Ihori-Mune with elongated Namboku Kissaki.
Blade Inscription in the Ji, both sides.
Omote: Bushu Ota Sho Washimiya Daimyojin
Ura: Eiwa Ninen (1376) Usuki Jukyu Hi - Yoshimasa
Standing Itame Hada has Sumihada. Masame in the Shinogi-Ji.
O-Notare of Gunome Choji-Midare Ba in clear Nioi and Mura-Nie. Ashi and Yo. Sunagashi and Kinsuji cut figures where Tobi-Yaki is formed.
Midare-Komi Boshi with Tobi-Yaki.
Ubu Kurijiri Nakago. Signed in the upper Ji.

     Bitchu-no-Kuni Junin Yoshitsugu


Naotsugu Naginata - Kokuho

Naotsugu Naginata - Kokuho
Nagasa:59.5cm
Moto-Haba: 2.8cm

Kanmuri-Otoshi, Mitsu-Mune. Naginata-Hi.
Ko-Itame Hada with Ji-Nie and Sumi-Hada.
Chu-width Ko-Midare of Saka Ko-Gunome with Saka-Ashi and Sunagashi. Small Tobi-Yaki and Hotsure pull across the Habuchi.
Tsuki-age Boshi pulls toward the Saki on either side of the Shinogi.

Hachiman Daibosatsu Ryaku-O Gonen x Gatsu Hi
                      Bitschu-no-Kuni Ju Naotsugu Saku
























BUNKAZAI TSUGUNAO

Tokyo National Museum

TSUGUNAO 
NAGASA: 26.7cm 
HIRA-TSUKURI, MITSU-MUNE, wide and thin NAMBOKU style TANTO. 
KO-ITAME HADA has a thin veil of JI-NIE which becomes JIFU. 
Classic later BITCHU SAKA-CHOJI MIDARE BA. NIOI-FUKASHI forms forms 
splatter to the side in looping piles. ASHI and YO abound. 
BOSHI is MIDARE TSUKI-AGE to the point. 
UBU, one hole, HA-AGARI NAKAGO.
        OMOTE:
            BITCHU-no-KUNI JU TSUGUNAO SAKU

SADATSUGU Line
_________
SUKETSUGU EI-NIN 1293
    |_______________________ ________________________
____|____               ____|_____                ___|____
SADATSUGU KEM-MU 1334   TSUGUTSUNE SHO-CHU 1324   SUKETANE 
____|____                                         KEM-MU 1334
SADATSUGU TEI-JI 1362
____|____
SADATSUGU O-EI 1394

SUKETSUGU EI-NIN: Swords are narrow of KO-ITAME with JI-NIE and
        SUMI-HADA. SUGUHA of tight NIOI and SAKA KO-ASHI or 
        CHOJI-MIDARE SAKA-ASHI.

TSUGUTSUNE SHO-CHU (f:SUKETSUGU):CHU-AOE.Style of his father.

SUKETANE KEM-MU (f: SUKETSUGU): MOKUME. SUGUHA.

SADATSUGU KEM-MU (f: SUKETSUGU):  OSUMI GON-no-SUKE. UEMONTARO.
        Made wide bodied, CHU-KISSAKI TACHI in TORIIZORI with 
        IHORI-MUNE. 8.5 SUN-style TANTO of normal width having 
        UCHI-ZORI MUNE. SUMI-HADA resides through KO-ITAME of 
        MOKUME with TOBI-like JI-NIE "dappled" on the surface.
        Highly defined KO-NIE HOSO-SUGU or CHU-SUGUHA where 
        KO-ASHI tends to SAKA. SAKA CHOJI-MIDARE GUNOME-MIDARE
        with SAKA-ASHI and YO may be found. 

SADATSUGU TEI-JI: SAIGOTARO. Also, BEInoJO. Spent his later years
        in INOMATA. Blades are wide and made thin. The YAKIBA can
        be described as a CHOJI -  SAKA-CHOJI mix that becomes 
        particularly expressive and showy.

SADATSUGU O-EI (f: TEI-JI SADATSUGU): EMONTARO is thought to have
        moved to BINGO for the finish of his line. SUGU MIDARE 
        with ASHI. 

Sadatsugu - Kokuho

Sadatsugu
Nagasa: 77.1cm
Sori: 2.4cm

A possession of the So Family of Tsushima.
Shinogi-tsukuri, Ihori-mune Ubu Tachi. Strong Ko-Kissaki.
Standing Hada has Sumi-hada.
Long, even Hamon of Ko-Choji Midare where Kinsuji charges the mid.
Ubu Nakago falls to a small Kurijiri. One Mekugi-ana. Signed next to the Mune.

             Sadatsugu


Chu-Aoe Sadatsugu

Chu-Aoe Sadatsugu
Nagasa: 71.2cm

Shinogi-tsukuri, Ihori-mune Tachi Sugata with elongated Ko-Kissaki.
Itame/Mokume has Sumi-hada and Jifu.
Chu-width Ko-Choji Midare Ba.
O-Suriage Nakago has three Mekugi-ana, one filled, and gold attribution in the lower.
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